Also referred to as pimples or “breakouts”.

It is a localised skin inflammation as a result of over activity of the oil glands at the base of specialized hair follicles. Acne happens when oil (sebaceous) glands come to life. These glands, which are located just beneath the skin, continuously produce and secrete oil through openings in the skin. The oil lubricates and protects the skin. Under certain circumstances, cells that are close to the openings of the oil glands block the openings. This causes a build-up of oil underneath the skin. Bacteria, which live in everyone's skin but generally mind their own business, feast on this oil, multiply and cause the surrounding tissues to become inflamed if the follicle ruptures.

If the inflammation is right near the surface, you get a pustule; if it's deeper, a papule (pimple); deeper still and it's a cyst. If the pore of the affected hair follicle is closed to the surface, the result is a "whitehead” and if the pore is wide open, oil becomes oxidised (that is, acted on by oxygen in the air), the oil changes from white to black, and the result is a "blackhead”.

Acne Scarring
Enlarged Pores
Age Spots/ Sun Spots
Sun Damage
Pigmentation and Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH)
Dull Discoloured Skin
Wrinkles and Fine lines
Crow's Feet
Vertical Lip Lines
Nasolabial Folds (Laugh Lines)
Marionette Lines
Glabellar/Frown Lines
Forehead Lines
Sagging Brows
Sagging Eyelids
Sunken Cheeks
Under Eye Dark Circles
Under Eye Bags
Volume Loss
Wrinkled & Sagging Neck, Décolletage & Hands


Stretch Marks

These are long, narrow streaks, stripes, or lines that develop on the skin. They are also called striae, striae distensae (SD), striae atrophicans, and striae gravidarum. They occur when the skin is suddenly stretched or it shrinks and are extremely common. Anyone can develop stretch marks, although they tend to affect more women than men. They can occur on a range of body parts, including the stomach, thighs, hips, breasts, legs, upper arms, and lower back. This type of scarring happens when the skin cannot resume normal form after a period of intense growth, often due to pregnancy, weight gain, weight loss, or puberty. Over 50 percent of women experience stretch marks during pregnancy. Pregnancy, puberty, and rapid weight gain can all cause stretch marks. Stretch marks can occur as a result of overstretched skin from rapid weight gain. For some people, stretch marks are a significant cosmetic concern that can affect day-to-day living. The skin consists of three key layers. Stretch marks form in the dermis, or middle layer, when the connective tissue is stretched beyond the limits of its elasticity. This is normally due to rapid expansion or contraction of the skin.

They are more likely to develop and become more severe where there are high levels of circulating cortisone, or when cortisone is applied to the skin. Cortisol, the stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands, is converted into cortisone. This weakens elastic fibers in the skin.

Between 50 and 90 percent of women who are pregnant experience stretchmarks during or after birth. Rapid growth is typical in young people going through puberty. Rapid weight gain. Putting on a lot of weight in a short space of time can cause stretch marks. Prolonged use of corticosteroid creams and lotions can decrease levels of collagen in the skin. Collagen strengthens and supports the skin, and a reduced amount can increase the risk of stretch marks. The risk factors for developing stretch marks could be linked to: family history, chronic diseases, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, birthweight of the child in women who are pregnant. These findings can be explained by the greater degrees of skin stretching in obese women with larger babies, and by age-related changes in skin collagen and connective tissue that affect the likelihood of tearing.

Stretch marks cannot always be prevented. However, the following steps may help to reduce the risk: Maintain a healthy weigh, avoid yo-yo dieting, consuming a suitable amount of vitamins A and C can help support the skin, as well as the minerals zinc and silicon, and aim for slow and gradual weight gain during pregnancy.

Loose/ Sagging Skin
Dry Skin


Thyroid Disorder

The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck just below the Adam’s apple. It’s part of an intricate network of glands called the endocrine system. The endocrine system is responsible for coordinating many of your body’s activities. The thyroid gland manufactures hormones that regulate your body’s metabolism.

Several different disorders can arise when your thyroid produces too much hormone (Hyperthyroidism) or not enough (Hypothyroidism).

In Hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland is overactive. It produces too much of its hormone. Hyperthyroidism affects about 1 percent of women. It’s less common in men. Excessive thyroid hormone production leads to symptoms such as: restlessness, nervousness, racing heart, irritability, increased sweating, shaking, anxiety, trouble sleeping, thin skin, brittle hair and nails, muscle weakness, weight loss, bulging eyes (in Graves’ disease). Your doctor will perform blood test to measure levels of thyroid hormone (thyroxine, or T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. The pituitary gland releases TSH to stimulate the thyroid to produce its hormones. High thyroxine and low TSH levels indicate that your thyroid gland is overactive.

Hypothyroidism is the opposite of hyperthyroidism. The thyroid gland is underactive, and it can’t produce enough of its hormones. Most cases of hypothyroidism are mild.Too little thyroid hormone production leads to symptoms such as: fatigue, dry skin, increased sensitivity to cold, memory problem, constipation, depression, weight gain, weakness, slow heart rate. Diagnosis also involves your doctor performing blood tests to measure your TSH and thyroid hormone levels. A high TSH level and low thyroxine level could mean that your thyroid is underactive. These levels could also indicate that your pituitary gland is releasing more TSH to try to stimulate the thyroid gland to make its hormone. The main treatment for hypothyroidism is to take thyroid hormone pills. It’s important to get the dose right, because taking too much thyroid hormone can cause symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

A simple physical exam can reveal an enlarged thyroid, enlarged bulging eyes, and signs of increased metabolism, including rapid pulse and high blood pressure. Predispositions to other medical conditions — such as thyroid disease — can also result in dark circles beneath your eyes.

Insulin Resistance
High Fat deposit & Stubborn Fat
Overweight (High BMI)


Receding Hairline

Traction alopecia is a form of alopecia, or gradual hair loss, caused primarily by pulling force being applied to the hair. This commonly results from the sufferer frequently wearing their hair in a particularly tight ponytail, pigtails, or braids. It is also seen occasionally in long-haired people who use barrettes to keep hair out of their faces. Traction alopecia is recession of the hairline due to chronic traction, or hair pulling, and is characterized by a fringe along the marginal hairline on physical exam.

Thinning Hair & Balding


Loose Vaginal Tissue

When it comes to the vagina, there are a lot of myths and misconceptions. Some people, for example, believe that vaginas can lose their elasticity and become loose forever. That’s not actually true, though. Your vagina is elastic. This means it can stretch to accommodate things coming in (think: a penis or sex toy) or going out (think: a baby). But it won’t take long for your vagina to snap back to its previous shape.

Your vagina may become slightly looser as you age or have children, but overall, the muscles expand and retract just like an accordion or a rubber band. Your vaginal muscles naturally relax when you’re aroused. If you’re not turned on, interested, or physically prepared for intercourse, your vagina won’t relax, self-lubricate, and stretch. Tight vaginal muscles, then, could make a sexual encounter painful or impossible to complete. Extreme vaginal tightness could also be a sign of vaginismus. Only two things can affect your vagina’s elasticity: age and childbirth. Frequent sex — or lack thereof — won’t cause your vagina to lose any of its stretch.

Over time, childbirth and age could potentially cause a slight, natural loosening of your vagina. Women who’ve had more than one vaginal birth are more likely to have weakened vaginal muscles. However, ageing can cause your vagina to stretch slightly, regardless of whether you’ve had children. You may begin to see a change in your vagina’s elasticity starting in your 40s. That’s because your oestrogen levels will begin to drop as you enter the perimenopausal stage. A loss of oestrogen means your vaginal tissue will become: thinner, drier, less acidic, less stretchy or flexible. These changes may become more noticeable once you reach full menopause. It’s natural for your vagina to change after a vaginal delivery. After all, your vaginal muscles stretch in order to let your baby pass through the birth canal and out of your vagina’s entrance. After your baby is born, you may notice that your vagina feels slightly looser than its usual form. That’s completely normal. Your vagina should start to snap back a few days after giving birth, although it may not return to its original shape completely. If you’ve had multiple childbirths, your vaginal muscles are more likely to lose a little bit of elasticity. If you’re uncomfortable with this, there are exercises you can do to strengthen your vaginal floor muscles before, during, and after pregnancy. When your pelvic floor muscles weaken from age or childbirth, you may: accidentally leak urine or pass wind and feel the constant need to pee. We treat this condition with Radio Frequency intra-vaginal therapy. To complement this treatment, we recommend practicing 3 sets of Kegels 5 to 10 times a day.

Remember: A “loose” vagina is a myth. Age and childbirth can cause your vagina to slightly lose some of its elasticity naturally, but your vaginal muscles won’t stretch out permanently. In time, your vagina will snap back to its original form. If you’re concerned about changes to your vagina, reach out to Dr Nandi to discuss what’s bothering you, she can help ease your concerns and advise you on any next steps.

MILD Urinary Incontinence



Fatigue is a common problem involving a physical and mental state of being extremely tired. Physical and mental fatigue are different, but they often occur together. Long-term physical exhaustion can also lead to mental fatigue. Poor sleep can lead to fatigue if ongoing, and we recommend 7 to 8 hours of sleep a day for adults over 18 years of age. Fatigue can be due to a variety of medical conditions and health problems such as, but not limited to: anaemia, mental health issues, metabolic disease, drugs and medication, chemicals and substances, thyroid conditions, diabetes, vitamin deficiency, insomnia, lung and heart disease, having recently given birth, chronic pain and obesity.

Insomnia is associated with a variety of medical problems and health conditions. These include: Diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity, anxiety and depression. Lack of sleep can prevent a person from fulfilling their usual tasks. It can make it hard to get out of bed in the morning. When it affects the safety of others too, on the road for example, it becomes a public health concern. In severe cases, a person may show signs similar to that of being in an intoxicated state due to fatigue.

These are several symptoms of fatigue:

Body aches

Sore muscles

Apathy and lack of motivation

Daytime drowsiness

Difficulty in concentrating or learning new tasks

Gastrointestinal problems such as bloating, abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhoea

Headache and migraine

Irritability and moodiness

Slowed response time

Impaired vision such as blurriness

Compromised Immune System

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